"■"**«•» Northwestern University Bulletin ■ nmw The School of Commerce 1922-1923 EVANSTON AND CHICAGO Vol. XXII DECEMBER 17, 1921 No. 35 Published Weekly by Northwestern University Northwestern University Building, Chicago Northwestern University Bulletin is published by Northwestern Univer- sity Weekly during the academic year at Chicago, Illinois. Entered as second- class mail matter November 21, 1913, at the postoffice at Chicago, Illinois, under act of Congress of August 24, 1912, acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, author- ized on June 14, 1918. Northwestern University Evanston and Chicago The School of Commerce 1922-1923 Published by the University Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/announcements192223nort Contents Calendars , 4 The Faculty and Special Lecturers 6 General Statement 13 The Undergraduate Division Full-time Day Courses — Evanston Admission 16 Requirements for the Degree 18 Registration 19 General Information 19 Part-time Evening Courses — Chicago Admission 25 Requirements for Degree and Diploma 26 General Information 27 The Graduate Division Admission 29 Registration 29 Requirements for Degrees 29 Programs of Study 34 Description of Courses 41 Calendar for Evanston Classes 1922-1923 1922 Sept. 18, Mon. Academic year 1922-23 begins. Examinations for admission. Registration begins. Sept. 20, Wed. Second examinations. Last day of registration. Sept. 21, Thu. Lectures and class exercises begin at eight o'clock. Oct. 3, Tue. Last day for registration of candidates for ad- vanced degrees. Nov. 30, Thu. Thanksgiving recess, to Sunday, Dec. 3, inclusive. Dec. 1, Fri. Last day for filing of titles of theses for advanced degrees. Dec. 21, Thu. Christmas recess, to Tuesday, Jan. 2, 1923, in- clusive. 1923 Class work resumed. Central Debating League Contest. Last day for filing of orations for Kirk Prize. Mid-year examinations begin. Examinations for admission. Last day of registration for the second semester. Second semester begins. Class work resumed at eight o'clock. Kirk Oratorical Prize Contest. Easter recess, to Tuesday, April 3, inclusive. Last day for filing applications for fellowships and graduate scholarships. Second examinations. Northern Oratorical League Contest. Last day for presentation of theses for advanced degrees. May 19, Sat. Oral examinations of candidates for advanced de- grees. June 4, Mon. Regular examinations begin. June 18, Mon. sixty-fifth annual commencement. Sept. 17, Mon. Academic year 1923-24 begins. Jan. 3, Wed. Jan. 12, Fri. Jan. 13, Sat. Jan. 29, Mon. Feb. 3, Sat. Feb. 7, Wed. Feb. 8, Thu. Feb. 9, Fri. Mar. 29, Thu. Mar. 3i, Sat. Apr. 3, Tue. May 4, Fri. May 12, Sat. Sept. 5, Tue. Sept. 15, Frf. Sept. 19, Tue. Sept. 20, Wed. Calendar for Chicago Classes 1922 Registration begins. Opening convocation. Registration closes. First semester class work begins. Nov. 29, Wed. Thanksgiving recess to Dec. 3, Sunday, inclusive. Dec. 1, Fri. Last day for filing of titles of theses for advanced degrees. Dec. 4, Mon. Special examinations to Dec. 9, Saturday, inclu- sive. Dec. 21, Thu. Christmas recess, to Jan. 3, Wednesday, inclusive. 1923 Jan. 4, Thu. Class work resumed. Jan. 22, Mon. Examinations begin. Jan. 27, Sat. First semester closes. Feb. 5, Mon. Second semester begins. Mar. 29, Thu. Easter recess to April 4, Wednesday, inclusive. Apr. 9, Mon. Special examinations to April 14, Saturday, in- clusive. May 12, Sat. Last day for the presentation of theses for ad- vanced degrees. May 19, Sat. Oral examinations of candidates for advanced de- grees. May 28, Mon. Examinations begin. June 2, Sat. Second semester closes. June 4, Mon. Summer Term opens. June 18, Mon. sixty-fifth annual commencement. Administrative Officers Walter Dill Scott, Ph.D., President of the University. Ralph Emerson Heilman, Ph.D., Dean. Clarence Stephen Marsh, M.A., Assistant Dean and Educational Adviser. Walter E. Lagerquist, Ph.D., Director of the Graduate Division. Neva Olive Lesley, Secretary. Bernice Elizabeth Collins, B.A., Recorder. The Faculty Willard Eugene Hotchkiss, Professor of Economics. Ph.D., Cornell University, 1905 ; dean, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 1908-1917; formerly supervisor of the 13th Census for the first Illinois district; secretary of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board; executive secretary of President Wilson's Industrial Conference, 1920; formerly labor manager of the National Wholesale Tailors Association; director, National Industrial Fed- eration of Clothing Manufacturers. Earl Dean Howard, Professor of Economics. Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1905; labor manager Hart, Schaffner & Marx; formerly secretary Committee on Industrial Relations, Cham- ber of Commerce of the United States of America. Frederick Shipp Deibler, Professor of Economics. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1909; member of the board of direc- tors Illinois Free Employment Exchange; formerly assistant examiner U. S. Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board. Alfred William Bays, Professor of Business Law. B.S., Knox College, 1901; LL.B., Northwestern University, 1904; member Jacobson, Bays & Tompkins, attorneys. Arthur Edward Andersen, Professor of Accounting. C.P.A., Illinois, 1908; B.B.A., Northwestern University, 1917; senior partner Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants; formerly president Illinois Society of Certified Public Accountants; member, American Institute of Accountants. Ralph Emerson Heilman, Professor of Economics. Ph.D., Harvard University, 1913; formerly examiner U. S. Shipbuild- ing Labor Adjustment Board, and district representative Industrial Relations Division, Emergency Fleet Corporation, for the North Atlan- tic Division. Arthur Emil Swanson, Professor of Business Organization. Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1911; formerly special expert, Division of Planning and Statistics, U. S. Shipping Board; director of the Bureau of Research and Statistics in the War Trade Board; dean, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 1917-1919; member of the executive board of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company; partner, Swanson Ogilvie Company. Horace Secrist, Professor of Economics and Statistics, and Director of the Bureau of Business Research. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1911; formerly statistician Tonnage Section, Division of Planning and Statistics, U. S. Shipping Board; special representative U. S. Shipping Board to the Allied Maritime Transportation Council, London, 1918. Walter Kay Smart, Professor of English. Ph.D., University of Chicago, 191 1; formerly head of the Department of English, Armour Institute of Technology. Walter Edward Lagerquist, Professor of Finance. Ph.D., Yale University, 1910; acting dean of the School of Commerce, Northwestern University, 1918-1919; special lecturer Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. David Himmelblau, Professor of Accounting. C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1913; B.B.A., Northwestern University, 1914; member, Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants; member, American Institute of Accountants. Homer Bews Vanderblue, Professor of Transportation. Ph.D., Harvard University, 1915; director of industrial research, Denver Civic and Commercial Association, 1920-1921; formerly with the statistical department, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. Harry Anson Finney, Professor of Accounting. Ph.B., University of Chicago, 1913; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; associate, American Institute of Accountants; member of the faculty of the Walton School of Commerce, 1915 to 1920; editor of the Students' Department in the Journal of Accountancy. Arthur John Todd, Professor of Sociology. Ph.D., Yale University, 191 1; formerly professor of sociology, Uni- versity of Minnesota; labor manager Kuppenheimer Clothing Com- pany. Harry Franklin Harrington, Professor of Journalism and Director of the Medill School of Journalism. M.A., Columbia University, 1909; formerly director of the courses in Journalism, University of Illinois. William Frank Bryan, Lecturer in English. Ph.D., University of Chicago; professor of English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Isaac Joslin Cox, Lecturer on Latin America. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1904; professor of history, Col- lege of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Franklyn Bliss Snyder, Lecturer in Literature. Ph.D., Harvard University, 1909; professor of English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Perley Orman Ray, Lecturer in Political Science. Ph.D., Cornell University, 1909; formerly head of the Department of Political Science and History, Pennsylvania State College and Trinity College; professor of political science, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Lew Sarett, Lecturer on Argumentation. B.A., Beloit College, 1911; LL.B., University of Illinois, 1916; head of Division of Public Speaking in Department of English, University of Illinois, 1916-1918; professor, School of Speech, Northwestern Uni- versity. Eric Louis Kohler, Associate Professor of Accounting. M.A., Northwestern University, 1915; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; member, American Institute of Accountants; member of Kohler, Pettengill & Company, certified public accountants. Clarence Stephen Marsh, Associate Professor of English. M.A., Northwestern University, 1921; registrar, Northwestern Uni- versity, 1911-1919. Fred Emerson Clark, Associate Professor of Economics and Mar- keting. Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1916; formerly special investigator of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Henry Post Dutton, Associate Professor of Factory Management. B.E.E., University of Michigan, 1914; president Dutton & Company; formerly with the Pullman Company and Arthur Young & Company. Robert Jackson Ray, Associate Professor of Economics and Inter- national Trade. M.A., University of Kansas, 1909; professor of economics, Keiogijuku University, Tokyo, Japan, 1911-1914; dean of Olivet College, 1918- 1919. Frank Thayer, Associate Professor of Journalism. M.A., University of Wisconsin, 1916; formerly associate professor of journalism, State College of Washington. William Herman Haas, Lecturer in Commerce and Trade. M.A., University of Chicago, 1903 ; associate professor of geology and geography, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Louis Winfield Webb, Lecturer in Psychology. Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1916; associate professor of education, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. William Vipond Pooley, Lecturer in History. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1905; associate professor of history, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Robert Grant Martin, Lecturer in English. Ph.D., Harvard University, 1910; associate professor of English, Col- lege of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. 8 Harold G. Moulton, Lecturer in Money and Banking. Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1914; associate professor of political economy, University of Chicago. Guy Meredith Pelton, Assistant Professor of Accounting. B.A., University of Wisconsin, 1909; formerly with Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants; director, courses in account- ing, Swift & Company. John Victor Tinen, Assistant Professor of Accounting. B.S., University of Illinois, 1912; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1921 ; formerly instructor, J. Sterling Morton High School. Charles Augustus Myers, Lecturer in English. Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 191 1; assistant professor of English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Delton Thomas Howard, Lecturer in Psychology. Ph.D., Cornell University, 1916; assistant professor of psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Robert Stanley Forsythe, Lecturer in English. Ph.D., Columbia University, 1914; assistant professor of English in the College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Clyde Leclare Grose, Lecturer in History. Ph.D., Harvard University, 1918; assistant professor of history, Col- lege of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Nathaniel Waring Barnes, Lecturer in Business Correspondence. M.A., Columbia University, 1905 ; assistant professor of commercial organization in the School of Commerce and Administration of the University of Chicago. Ernest Herman Hahne, Lecturer in Economics. LL.B., University of Nebraska, 1913; M.A., Harvard University, 1914; instructor in "economics, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern Uni- versity. Frederick Henry Heidbrink, Lecturer in English. M.A., Northwestern University, 1920; instructor in English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Arthur Hobart Nethercot, Lecturer in English. M.A., Northwestern University, 1916; graduate work at Oxford Uni- versity and University of Chicago; instructor in English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. McKendree Petty, Lecturer in Spanish. B.A., University of Vermont, 1916; instructor in Romance Languages, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. George Alcuin Rollins, Lecturer in English. M.A., Northwestern University, 1913; instructor in English, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Merle Leslie Wright, Lecturer in Effective Speaking. J M.A.f Northwestern University, 1921 ; instructor in public speaking, School of Speech, Northwestern University. Clarence Simon, Lecturer in Effective Speaking. B.A., Wittenberg College, 1919; instructor in School of Speech, North- western University. Adolph J. Snow, Lecturer in Psychology. Ph.D., Columbia University, 1919; instructor in psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Northwestern University. Joseph Henry Gilby, Lecturer in Accounting. Graduate, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 191 1; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1913; LL.B., Kent College of Law, 1916; formerly chief accountant American Steel Foundries, East St. Louis, 111., and manager Amos Bird Company, Shanghai, China; with Arthur Ander- sen & Company, certified public accountants. James Harris Bliss, Lecturer in Accounting. C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1916; with accounting department Swift & Company; formerly treasurer Siegel Cooper & Company; member, American Institute of Accountants. James Hamilton Picken, Lecturer in Advertising. M.A., Harvard University, 1912; head James H. Picken Advertising Service. Roy Hall, Lecturer in Accounting. B.A., Wabash College, 1909; C.P.A., state of Indiana, 1916; treasurer, Chapin & Company, Chicago; associate, American Institute of Ac- countants. Alexander W. Taylor Ogilvie, Lecturer in Management. Graduate, Northwestern University School of Commerce, 1913; part- ner, Swanson Ogilvie Company. John Charles Teevan, Lecturer in Business Law. LL.B., Northwestern University, 1917; attorney. Arthur Quentin Larson, Lecturer in Accounting. B.A., State University of Iowa, 1910; instructor, Lyons Township High School, La Grange, Illinois. John Joseph Strittar, Lecturer in Accounting. With Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants. John Rudolph Bvland, Lecturer in Accounting. Instructor, Hyde Park High School, Chicago. Glenn Lee Grawols, Lecturer in Accounting. B.A., Hillsdale College; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1921 ; with the Continental Account & Audit Company. Jacob Lewis Jacobs, Lecturer in Organization. Ph.B., Yale University, 1907; C.E., Yale University, 1909; director, J. L. Jacobs & Company, industrial engineers and employment ad- visers. John Otis Johnson, Lecturer in Accounting. With Thompson-Starrett Company. Paul Kenneth Knight, Lecturer in Accounting. M.A., University of Illinois, 1917; with Arthur Andersen & Company, certified public accountants. 10 Finley Holmes McAdow, Lecturer in Credits. Formerly president Chicago Credit Men's Association, and president National Credit Men's Association. Charles Conner Wells, Lecturer in Economics. B.S., Northwestern University, 1909; bond department, Continental & Commercial National Bank, 1918. Reuben Dale Cahn, Lecturer in Economics. B.A., Northwestern University, 1916; formerly assistant efficiency engineer, U. S. Railroad Labor Board; at present consultant on economic problems and economist for the Illinois Department of Labor. Ernest Putnam Clark, Lecturer in French. B.A., University of Paris, 1913; Wesleyan University, 1914; formerly instructor in Romance Languages, Northwestern University; formerly dean and principal, Elgin Junior College and Academy; with The Northern Trust Company. King Cook, Lecturer in English. B.A., Dartmouth College, 1915; instructor in English, Dartmouth College, 1916. Harold William Moorhouse, Lecturer in Economics. M.B.A., Northwestern University, 1921 ; formerly head of the School of Commerce and Marketing, Oklahoma State College; formerly mem- ber of the Oklahoma State Market Commission. Charles Rupert Whitworth, Lecturer in Accounting. A.C.A., C.P.A. ; member, American Institute of Accountants; resident partner, Touche Niven & Company; formerly president, Illinois So- ciety of Certified Public Accountants. Baker Brownell, Lecturer in Journalism. M.A., Harvard University, 1911; editorial writer, Chicago Daily News. John DeWitt Culp, Lecturer in Merchandising. B.S., University of Illinois, 1916; division superintendent, Mont- gomery Ward & Company. Abram Nicholas Pritzker, Lecturer in Accounting. Ph.B., University of Chicago, 1916; LL.B., Harvard Law School, 1920; member of law firm of Pritzker & Pritzker. Frank Stockdale, Lecturer in Retail Store Management. Formerly member editorial staff of "System"; formerly special lecturer for the International Harvester Company and for the Associated Ad- vertising Clubs of the World ; president of the Stockdale Service Company. Harry Thorn, Lecturer in Accounting. B.S., Northwestern University, 1920; C.P.A. , State of Illinois, 1921 Walter A. Washburne, Lecturer in Journalism. City Editor, Chicago Evening Post. 11 Albert Edward Shower, Lecturer in English. M.A., University of Chicago, 1913; formerly professor of public speaking, Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas. Samuel A. Bartels, Lecturer in Art of Typography. Graduate I. T. U. course of instruction in printing; formerly head compositor and lay-out man of printing departments of various east- ern concerns and head of job printing department of Henry O. Shepard Company; at present typographical expert with Fred Klein Company. George C. Bastian, Lecturer in News Editing. Assistant Sunday editor of the Chicago Sunday Tribune; formerly managing editor of the Waukegan Daily Gazette, and assistant city editor of the Chicago Record-Herald. Elmer Allen Claar, Lecturer in English. A.B., University of Illinois, 1915; LL.D., Northwestern University, 1920; instructor of English, Armour Institute of Technology; asso- ciate in the law firm of MacChesney & Becker. John C. Dinsmore, Lecturer in Purchasing. Ph.B., University of Chicago, 1911; secretary-treasurer, Purchasing Agents' Association of Chicago. Howard Clark Greer, Lecturer in Accounting. B.A., Northwestern University, 1915; C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1920; with Arthur Young & Company, certified public accountants. Robert D. Highfill, Lecturer in English. B.A., University of Arkansas, 1911; formerly instructor in English in the University High School, University of Chicago; co-ordinator for U. S. Veterans Bureau with Northwestern University. J. Earle Miller, Lecturer in News Reporting and Writing. Previously reporter and special correspondent for various eastern and middle west newspapers; at present city editor Chicago Bureau and Associated Press. M. A. Myers, Lecturer in Psychology. B.S., Dartmouth College, 1913; assistant in psychology, University of Illinois, 1917-1919; Bureau of Personnel Research, Pittsburgh, Penna., 1920; with B. Kuppenheimer & Company. Paul W. Pettengill, Lecturer in Accounting. C.P.A., State of Illinois, 1921 ; member of Kohler, Pettengill & Com- pany, certified public accountants. Milton W. Thompson, Lecturer in Banking. M.A., University of Illinois, 19 12; graduate student at the University of Chicago, 1913, at University of Wisconsin, 1914-1915; associate professor of economics, Indiana University, 1921. Donald M. Ewing, Lecturer in News Reporting and Writing. Formerly instructor, University of Missouri School of Journalism; city editor, the Associated Press. 12 General Statement Northwestern University School of Commerce offers a compre- hensive professional course of training in business. The purpose of the School is to train the student for business on the basis of a broad outlook on life, to give him thorough knowledge of the prin- ciples that underlie business action, and to acquaint him with efficient business practice. The instruction is planned to give him an under- standing of the public relations of business and a broad survey of business facts and experience, to develop the power of accurate anal- ysis, and to prepare the student for leadership as an executive. The School of Commerce was established in June, 1908, with 255 students. Its enrollment has increased rapidly, until today its registration in all courses substantially exceeds three thousand stu- dents. The School is well equipped to offer training in business. Its location in a great urban center enables members of the faculty to maintain a close contact with the operation of modern business, and with business practice. It also permits of numerous inspection trips to important industrial, manufacturing and merchandising establish- ments by the students. It further makes it possible to utilize suc- cessful business men as instructors in certain specialized courses, and as general lecturers in various fields. The policy of the School is to identify itself closely w T ith the business life of the community, in the belief that in this way it will be able to render a larger service both to its students and to the business world. The School offers both undergraduate and graduate instruction on two plans : 1. Day classes, in Harris Hall on the University Campus, Evan- ston, for full-time students. 2. Late afternoon, evening and Saturday classes in the North- western University Building, in the loop district of Chicago, for part- time students, mainly men and women who are engaged in business. The Medill School of Journalism The Medill School of Journalism was established in February, 1 92 1, as a tribute to the memory of Joseph Medill, founder of the Chicago Tribune. It is organized and conducted, administratively, as a department of the School of Commerce, in cooperation with the College of Liberal Arts of Northwestern University. The 13 14 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY School has the active support of the various Chicago newspapers and periodicals, which have offered their plants for use as laboratories where the students may become familiar with the actual operation of great newspapers. Types of Courses — Through this combination the Medill School of Journalism provides not only practical training in the gathering, writing, editing and publishing of news, but also a broad back- ground of university work in subjects which are essential for the journalist. To this end, three types of courses are offered: i. Those which provide training in the actual technique and practice of modern journalism. 2. Those which familiarize the student with present day social, economic and political problems, and the general field of literature. 3. Those which develop his power of clear and effective expres- sion. Plans of Instruction — The School of Journalism offers instruc- tion on two plans: 1. For students who are devoting their entire time to prepara- tion for journalism, the undergraduate courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Journalism, and graduate courses leading to the degree Master of Science, are given in full-time day classes on the Evanston campus. 2. For employes of the various newspapers, periodicals and pub- lishing houses of Chicago and its vicinity, or for other persons who wish to enter the field but cannot devote their entire time to the preparation, the courses leading to a diploma of the University are given in evening and Saturday afternoon classes in the Northwestern University Building, Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. In some cases, students in these part-time classes, offering the proper entrance credits, may be able to qualify for a degree. More detailed information concerning requirements and cur- riculum is contained in a special bulletin of the School of Journalism which may be secured by addressing the office of the School, 31 West Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois. The Undergraduate Division Full-Time Courses, pages 16 to 24 Part-Time Courses, pages 25 to 27 The Undergraduate Division The Full-Time Courses Admission REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION Applicants for admission to the undergraduate division of the day work of the School of Commerce, leading to a degree, must present credit of acceptable grade for two years of work in a college, professional or scientific school of approved standing, including one year of science, one year of College English and Economics A (Gen- eral Principles of Economics). Students entering from the College of Liberal Arts of Northwestern University will be required to present in addition a foreign language through an A course. Stu- dents who lack any of these courses when entering the School of Commerce shall be required to secure credit for them before qualify- ing for the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce. Persons are not admitted to the course in Business unless their college record gives evidence of capacity to undertake serious professional study. For persons who desire to prepare for admission to the School of Commerce by pursuing work in the College of Liberal Arts of Northwestern University a two-year Pre-Commerce course has been arranged in this college. The course includes those subjects prescribed for admission to the School of Commerce, and at the same time, those prescribed for a degree from the College of Liberal Arts. It carries the student equally well toward either degree. THE OBJECT IN REQUIRING TWO YEARS OF COLLEGE STUDY IN PREPARATION FOR ENTRANCE TO THE DEGREE COURSE Business demands today particularly men who are broadly trained, and not men narrowly drilled in routine. It needs managers; not rank and file. The business executive must possess a comprehensive and intimate grasp of the meaning of detail, but he must be able to look beyond and through the detail to the broader principles as they affect all business. Only in their "dollars and cents" aspects are these principles economic. This vital fact the Pre-Commerce 16 THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE Course recognizes, meeting the need for broad foundations and reserving the time of the more mature and partially trained student for the intensive analysis required by the specialized commerce courses. The general Pre-Commerce Course, when analyzed in the light of the broad purpose, is at once recognized as intensely prac- tical. Much modern business is done by mail; advertising is an acknowledged marketing force; succinct and accurate reports are re- quired by executives. So great, indeed, is the importance attached to the study of English that in the senior year a supplementary course in Business English has been required. Moreover, though the execu- tive may turn to the engineer — coal, mechanical, electrical, chemical or mining — for professional advice, he can discriminate only when he has a knowledge of the basic principles which underlie those profes- sions: the principles of Trigonometry, Physics, Chemistry and Geol- ogy. The study of political science, as of foreign language, is pro- vided to recognize the wider interest in a foreign market due to the larger participation of the United States in world affairs. French is still the important international language. Economic History traces the development of the modern business machine, which Economics and Money and Banking study as in its present day organization. Be- cause of the fact that the essential principles which distinguish Ac- counting from mere rule-of-thumb bookkeeping arise from an under- standing of Economics, the study of Accounting is necessarily postponed to the specialized commerce course of the junior and senior years. Likewise Advertising. Selling and Personnel Management must await a knowledge of the basic principles of Psychology. The Pre-Commerce Course, then, is designed to give the student something more than a broad cultural foundation, something more than mere preparation for undertaking the study of the professional business subjects. It represents an end in itself; the equipment of the student with a knowledge of the scientific essentials which affect the physical operations and the human relationships in business. This end achieved, there accrues, as a by-product, an understanding of those far reaching public relations which demand, from the busi- ness man, a liberal culture, and the finest qualities of mind and spirit. Students who plan to take the Pre-Commerce Course in North- western University must have a transcript of their high school credits submitted by the high school principal to the Registrar of the College of Liberal Arts. A blank for the submission of these credits, to- gether with information regarding entrance requirements, may be obtained upon request from the Registrar, College of Liberal Arts, Evanston, Illinois. 18 NORTHWES T ERN U N I V E R S I T Y Requirements for the Degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMMERCE The degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce is conferred on the recommendation of the faculty of the School of Commerce subject to the following provisions: 1. The candidate for the Bachelor's degree must have pursued studies in residence in the School of Commerce of Northwestern University for at least one academic year (30 semester-hours) and must have received the recommendation of the faculty for that degree. 2. One of the two-year programs of study of the School of Commerce must have been completed in addition to the two fiill years of college or professional school work required for entrance, sufficient to make a total credit of one hundred and twenty semester- hours. The Commerce curriculum must have included the pre- scribed courses and a problem course including a thesis. 3. Of the total credit presented for the degree not more than one-tenth of the work done under the faculty of the School of Com- merce may be of grade D. 4. The candidate for the degree must have presented acceptable evidence of at least three months' satisfactory service in a well- organized business concern. COMBINED LIBERAL ARTS AND COMMERCE COURSES The College of Liberal Arts permits Juniors and Seniors regis- tered in that college to elect approved courses in the School of Com- merce not to exceed a total of thirty semester-hours under the following conditions: A student who has completed two years in the College of Liberal Arts may register in the School of Commerce, and, upon the com- pletion of his second year in the School of Commerce, may receive the degree Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science from the College of Liberal Arts, provided he has met the college requirements for one of these degrees, including the requirements for a major and minor, or three minors, two of which are correlated. A student who has completed three full years of work (90 semes- ter-hours) in the College of Liberal Arts, including full entrance requirements, all the required courses for a degree and a major and a minor or three minors, two of which are correlated, may transfer his registration to the School of Commerce. Upon the completion of one year of work (30 semester-hours) in Commerce he may receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 19 Registration REGISTRATION IN THE COMMERCE COURSE Commerce students are required to register in person at the office of the School of Commerce in Harris Hall on the Campus in Evan- ston. Upon registration they must file a transcript of their credits from the College of Liberal Arts of Northwestern University, or the institution from which such credits are presented. Registration days are the first Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of the first semester; and two specified days between semesters. A student not registered at the close of this period is subject to a fee of two dollars for late registration. A tuition bill is given to the student upon registration. This must be presented for payment immediately at the Business Manager's Office, 518 Davis Street, Evanston. LIMITED REGISTRATION Registration in the full-time day classes of the School of Com- merce for the year 1922- 1923 is limited to three hundred students at any one time. Applications for admission shall be accompanied by a deposit of $10.00, this deposit to be applied on the tuition account if the student is admitted to the School, but not to be refunded otherwise. REGISTRATION IN THE PRE-COMMERCE COURSE Every applicant for the Pre-Commerce Course is required to register in person at the office of the Registrar of the College of Liberal Arts, in University Hall, Evanston, and to report for assign- ment of subjects and general instruction to the adviser for Pre-Com- merce students. General Information THE LIBRARY The University Library in Evanston is open to officers of the University, and to students upon the payment of their regular semester bills. In addition to the University Library, there are available to the students of the School of Commerce the Commerce Library in the Northwestern University Building, Chicago; the Elbert H. Gary Library of Law, housed in the same building; the John Crerar Li- brary, the Public Library of Chicago, and the Newberry Library. The John Crerar Library is very completely equipped with materials for use in business research. 20 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY FIELD WORK In many of the courses a substantial amount of field work is provided, in addition to the classroom instruction. This consists of inspection trips through various manufacturing and merchandising establishments in and around Chicago, and investigative work con- ducted by the student in such plants on special subjects or assign- ments under faculty supervision. In some courses a student will be assigned to conduct such work in some one selected establishment, and in other courses the field work will include study and observa- tions conducted at several plants. The purpose of this field work is to utilize the opportunities of Chicago in such a way as to provide the student with actual laboratory or clinical facilities for the scien- tific study of business, and to supplement the classroom instruction with concrete and illustrative material. THE BUREAU OF BUSINESS RESEARCH The Bureau of Business Research is an integral part of the School. It has for its purpose the conduct of investigation and research regarding business principles and the securing of data con- cerning business practice. The material thus secured is used for instructional purposes in the classroom, and so far as feasible is made available to all who are interested. EMPLOYMENT FOR GRADUATES Although the School of Commerce does not promise to secure positions for its graduates, it has organized a Bureau of Employment through which it makes a systematic effort to find positions for stu- dents who have made a good record in the School. It has proved of large value in aiding students to make satisfactory connection with business firms upon the completion of their study. PRIZES AND HONORS Graduation with Distinction — For general excellence, degrees "with distinction" and "with highest distinction" are conferred, and such phrase is recorded on the diploma and appears in the published list of graduates for the year. To qualify for a degree "with distinction" the candidate must have ranked as a Senior in this School for the two semesters, or three terms, next preceding his graduation, and during these two semesters he must have secured at least twenty-four semester-hours of credit for work done in Commerce classes. The candidate must have obtained a high general average for the last two years of his course. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 21 Degrees "with highest distinction" are conferred on a basis simi- lar to that for degrees "with distinction," except that for the last two years the candidate must have reached a stated rank higher than that fixed for "distinction." Scholarships — Five scholarships are awarded annually to select members of the Junior and Senior classes. The awards are made by members of the Commerce faculty. Applications must be made in writing before August I, and addressed to the Dean of the School of Commerce. Beta Gamma Sigma Scholarship — To the Junior who is elected to membership in Beta Gamma Sigma, an honorary society, and who completes the best record for the Junior year, a scholarship is granted carrying free tuition during the Senior year, and the holder bears the title of Beta Gamma Sigma Scholar. Deru Scholarship — The Deru Scholarship of fifty dollars, do- nated by the Deru Society, is awarded to a young man in the Junior year on the basis of scholarship and general efficiency. Pecuniary need is also taken into consideration. Delta Sigma Pi Prize — A Gold Key, the gift of Delta Sigma Pi Fraternity, Beta Chapter, is awarded annually upon graduation to the Senior who, in judgment of the faculty, is ranked highest in scholarship, leadership and promise of future usefulness. La Verne Noyes Scholarships — Under the will of Mr. La Verne Noyes of Chicago, the trustees of his estate award annually certain scholarships, covering tuition fees in whole or in part, to men who served in the Army or Navy of the United States during the Great war, 191 7-18, or to their descendants, who are deserving and who may need this assistance. A limited number of these scholarships have been made available in Northwestern University. The Gage Debate Prizes — Prizes aggregating one hundred dollars are given annually by the Honorable Lyman J. Gage for excellence in debate. The recipients of these prizes are selected through a series of debates, held in the autumn of each year, to which students from all departments of the University are eligible. The winners of the Gage prizes become the representatives of the University in the annual contest of the Central Debating League. The John B. Kirk Prize in Oratory — This prize of one hundred dollars was established in 1877 by Mr. John B. Kirk of Evanston, and is now the gift of Mrs. J. P. Williamson, of Havana, North Dakota. It is awarded each year for excellence in original oratory. 22 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Any student of the University who satisfies the requirements as stated in the Undergraduate's Manual and who has not received a Bachelor's degree is entitled to compete. The Sargent Prizes in Public Speaking — Two prizes of fifty and twenty-five dollars, respectively, endowed by Mr. George M. Sargent, of Evanston, are given for excellence in public speaking, at a contest held on the first Friday of November. LOAN FUNDS AND SCHOLARSHIPS The University receives annually a considerable sum of money to be lent to worthy students on the recommendation of a faculty committee. Satisfactory scholarship and promise of service are essen- tial to securing such assistance. Loans cannot in general be made until the student has been in residence for at least a half-year. RESIDENCES FOR MEN Thirteen dormitories, of which nine are fraternity houses and four are so-called college houses, are now available for men students; all men are required to live in a dormitory unless for sufficient cause they are given formal permission to live elsewhere. For description of the Buildings, see the Annual Catalog. The charge to each student for a single, furnished room, includ- ing care and heat for the school year, is from $115 to $140, except for rooms having a private bath, or a bath reserved for a suite, for which the annual charge is from $150 to $200. A chart can be obtained from the Registrar showing the location of rooms, with cost. Applications and all inquiries in regard to the dormitories should be sent to the Registrar of the College of Liberal Arts, University Hall, Evanston, Illinois. RESIDENCES FOR WOMEN Women students are under the immediate supervision of the Dean of Women. They are required to live in the halls established as women's residences or in the listed approved houses under private management, unless living in their own homes. Permission to live elsewhere is given in exceptional cases only and terminates at the end of the term (or semester) unless renewed. Wherever women stu- dents reside they are expected to conform to the general regulations governing absence from the house, visitors' hours, social engagements, and the like. A special house is reserved for Commerce and Jour- nalism women. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 23 Prices for room and board in these halls range from $242 to $324 a .year, according to the location of the room, payable quarterly in advance. For information, inquiries should be sent to the Dean of Women, Evanston, Illinois. COMMERCE CLUB The Commerce Club is an organization composed of Commerce and Pre-Commerce students. This society meets every two \veek9 and is addressed by business men. GRADES OF SCHOLARSHIP At the end of each semester the standing of each student in each of his courses is reported by the instructor to the recorder and is entered of record. Standing is expressed, according to proficiency, in grades A, B, C, D, E, F. Grade A denotes superior scholarship; grade B, good scholarship; grade C, fair scholarship; grade D, poor scholarship; grade E, a condition which may be removed by a second examination; grade F, a failure removable only by repetition of the subject in the class. Work of grades A, B and C is counted toward a degree. Work of grade D may also be counted toward a degree, but not more than one- tenth of the work done under the Commerce faculty offered to meet the requirements for graduation may be of this grade. Students who secure a lower grade than D in any course will be permitted to continue their work for the degree only in very excep- tional cases. In such cases, regulations for making up the work in which the deficiency occurs are the same as obtain in the College of Liberal Arts. If the number of a student's absences in the courses for which he is registered during a single semester amounts to twenty, his total credit for that semester is reduced by one hour, and for each additional fifteen absences a reduction of one hour of credit is made. If the number of absences in a single course exceeds three times the number of class exercises per week, registration in that course is cancelled. Work reported "incomplete" at the end of any semester, and not made good by the beginning of the corresponding semester of the fol- lowing year, can thereafter be given credit only by repetition in class. The semester records of students are sent by the Recorder to the student's father or guardian. 24 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Fees and Expenses EVANSTON CLASSES Matriculation Fee — Payable on the student's first admission to the University, not refundable or transferable $ 5.00 Tuition — Payable each semester, in advance: Regular full tuition and incidentals 120.00 Ordained ministers; wives, sons and daughters of ministers 72.00 Students pursuing a single study, i. e., work not exceeding six hours a week 72.00 Ordained ministers; wives, sons and daughters of ministers pursuing a single study 60.00 Registration in excess of seventeen hours, per hour 7.00 Gymnasium Supplies — Charged women students using the gymnasium, to cover the rental of a locker, the use of a regulation bathing suit, towels, laundry, etc 2.50 Student Enterprises — Charged all undergraduates, each se- mester, for general student activities. This fee secures to the student admission to all athletic games and oratorical contests under the control of faculty committees 3.00 Late Registration — For registration after the first Wednes- day in the first semester and after the corresponding day in the second semester 2.00 Changes in Registration — For any change in registration... 1.00 Deferred Tuition Payment — For payment after the first ten days of the semester 2.00 Special Examinations — For each examination taken at a time other than that provided in the regular schedule 2.00 Graduation Fee — Charged persons taking any degree in the School of Commerce. Payable on the first day of May of the year of graduation 20.00 Students Registered in Two Departments — A student whose primary registration is in another department of the University pays the fees of that department and may register in the School of Com- merce without additional fees for tuition for such courses as may be approved by both faculties concerned. Bills for fees are made out at the Office of the School of Commerce in Harris Hall. Payment is made at the Business Manager's Office, 518 Davis Street, Evanston. Checks should be made payable to "Northwestern University" and all payments should be made in currency or in Chicago exchange. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 25 REFUNDS No fees for instruction or incidentals will be refunded except in cases of sickness. If on account of his serious illness a student with- draws before the middle of a semester, one-half of his tuition fee will be refunded, providing he secures from the Dean a statement of honorable standing, and from a physician a certificate that his health will not permit him to remain in attendance. Application for a refund must be made before the close of the semester for which the fee was paid. The Part-Time Undergraduate Courses In addition to the full-time day courses described on the preced- ing pages, the School of Commerce offers part-time late afternoon, evening and Saturday courses in the Northwestern University Build- ing in Chicago. These courses are intended primarily for the benefit of those who are employed, and who are therefore unable to give their entire time during the day to college studies. Students may, by pursuing a regular program of these courses, secure either the Diploma in Commerce or the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce, or they may elect, as special students, to take any of these courses separately. Students in these courses who have fulfilled the requirements for entrance to the diploma or degree courses, and who have com- pleted sixteen semester-hours of work (the equivalent of four year subjects), may register for Commerce subjects in Evanston with the permission of the Commerce Committee on Registration, subject to to the regulations governing the admission of students to the particular courses concerned. Admission REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION Applicants for admission to the part-time afternoon and evening classes of the undergraduate division are classified in three general groups, with differing requirements, as stated below: i. As candidates for the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce. Admission Requirement — Two years in a college, univer- sity, scientific, or professional school of approved stand- ing. 26 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 2. As candidates for the Diploma in Commerce. Admission Requirement — Fifteen units of credit from a high school or preparatory school of approved standing. 3. As special students. Admission Requirement — Fifteen units of credit, as stated above, in the case of applicants under 21 years of age. Applicants over 21 may be admitted as special students, without having completed a high school curriculum, provided they have had satisfactory business experience. Requirements for Degree and Diploma REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMMERCE In addition to meeting the entrance requirements, the candidate for this degree through the part-time courses offered in Chicago will be required to complete an amount of work equivalent to that re- quired for this degree in full-time day work, stated on page 18. The period of time required to qualify for the degree through this part- time program will depend upon the amount of work the student may carry. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DIPLOMA IN COMMERCE In addition to meeting the entrance requirements, the candidate for the Diploma must fulfill the requirements stated below: 1 . At least one year of satisfactory business experience. 2. Twenty-four units of approved credit, of which not more than one-sixth may be of grade D (see Grades of Scholarship, page 23). 3. In the case of students presenting advanced credit from other institutions, at least eight units of work must be pursued under the direction of the faculty of the School of Commerce. No advanced credit toward the Diploma in Commerce will be allowed except for courses equivalent to those offered in the School of Commerce. 4. Required subjects: Two units in each of the following: Accounting I, Business Law, Economics and Finance. In addition, English II is required unless the student gives evidence by examina- tion of satisfactory proficiency in English. Of the twenty-four units, not more than six can be in other than business subjects. 5. The Diploma in Commerce is awarded only to students whose major registration is in the afternoon and evening classes in Chicago. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 27 Fees and Expenses CHICAGO CLASSES Registration Fee — Payable once each year, not refundable or transferable $ 5.00 Tuition — Payable each semester, in advance: 5 2-hour semester subjects 55-CO 4 2-hour semester subjects 50.00 3 2-hour semester subjects 45.00 2 2-hour semester subjects 37-50 1 2-hour semester subject 25.00 1 4-hour semester subject 50.00 fi additional 2-hour semester subject $12.50! -J2 additional 2-hour semester subjects 20.00 J- [3 additional 2-hour semester subjects 25.00J 2 4-hour semester subjects 75«oo Late Registration Fee (consult Calendar of current semester for registration dates) 2.00 Delinquent Tuition Fee — For payment after close of second week of the semester 2.00 Change of Subject Fee — For change of subject or class sec- tion after first week of the semester. . * 2.00 Lecture Note Fees — Charged in certain courses where the text is in the form of mimeographed lectures. Fee, de- pending upon the course, varies from $1.00 to 3.00 Special Examination Fee — Charged for each examination taken at a time other than that provided in the regular schedule 2.00 Graduation Fee — Paid in the year of graduation by all candi- dates for Diploma or Degree 20.00 Hours for Consultation and Registration The office of the School of Commerce, in Room 425, North- western University Building, at the corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago, is open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. ; during the school year, 9 a. m. to 9:30 p. m., daily; Saturdays, from 9 to 5. More detailed information and description of courses offered in the part-time Chicago classes are contained in a special bulletin which will be supplied on request. Address all correspondence to The Secretary, Northwestern University School of Commerce, Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. The Graduate Division THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 29 The Graduate Division Requirements for Admission All applicants for admission to the School of Commerce, who have received a professional or a bachelor's degree from a college, scientific or professional school of recognized standing, are required to register with the Graduate Division of the School of Commerce. Those who wish to become candidates for an advanced degree in this School must present proper certificates of qualification. The period of time required to obtain such a degree will be determined after consideration of the candidate's individual qualifications. Registration Registration with the Graduate Division, whether or not the applicant is a candidate for a degree, must be made not later than the dates indicated in the respective calendars for Evanston and Chicago classes, page 4. The applicant is required to file an official copy of his college record and to furnish a statement of the courses of study to be pursued which must be approved by the Director of the Graduate Division. Students who expect to carry the major portion of their work in the Evanston classes will file their applications at the Evanston office of the School of Commerce, Room 316, Harris Hall; those who expect to carry the major portion of their work in the Chicago classes will file their applications in the office of the Graduate Division of the School of Commerce, Northwestern University Building, 31 West Lake Street, Chicago. Requirements for Degrees The degree Master of Business Administration will be conferred under the following conditions: I. TIME AND RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS For candidates who have received a Bachelor's degree and who have taken the equivalent of a major in economics or commerce in this University or any other college, scientific or professional school of approved standing, the usual standard requirement for the degree Master of Business Administration is one year of full-time residence work, consisting of twenty-six semester-hours, in day classes. Students who have received a Bachelor's degree in Liberal Arts, either from Northwestern University or from a college or university 30 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY of approved standing, but who have not the equivalent of a major in economics or commerce, will ordinarily be required to spend two years in full-time residence study, in day classes, in order to obtain the degree. Students pursuing all of their work in evening and Saturday classes in Chicago will be required to complete an amount of work in such classes which shall be equivalent to the requirements for the degree in day work. The period of time required to qualify for the degree through a part-time program in these classes will depend upon the amount of work which the student carries. A student in the School of Commerce who, during his under- graduate course, has completed more than the required one hundred and twenty hours for his Bachelor's degree, may receive credit for such excess toward a Master's degree upon the approval of the Direc- tor of the Graduate Division, but in no case will the degree Master of Business Administration be conferred in less than one year after the conferring of the Bachelor's degree. Students who prefer to take only a minor in commerce subjects can complete the requirements for the Master's degree or the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Graduate School of the University. 2. COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND THESIS The candidate must have completed in residence work credits amounting to twenty semester-hours in approved courses, and in addi- tion a thesis to fulfill the total requirement of twenty-six semester- hours. At least one-half of the credits presented toward fulfilling this requirement shall be from courses as advanced as those of the "C" group. Purely elementary courses may not be presented. No group of courses below the "B" group of courses will be accepted. The in- structor in any course at his discretion may require work additional to regular class work in the courses taken for graduate credit. Work presented for credit toward the Master's degree must be of grade "B" or better. The candidate must present a thesis on an approved subject in the field of his study. In connection with his thesis, some original in- vestigative work is required in the business upon which the candidate is writing. The subject of this thesis must be filed with the Director of the Graduate Division not later than the first of December, on a form furnished by the Office, and the completed thesis must be filed not later than the twelfth of May. It must be printed or type- writted in prescribed form and two additional copies must be fur- nished the School of Commerce Library. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 31 Through the Bureau of Business Research an opportunity is supplied to graduate students to take an active part in research work and closely to connect the same with the thesis which is required of each student. This opportunity extends both to the collection and interpretation of material and furnishes students the privilege, under certain circumstances, of establishing close contact with Chicago business houses. 3. APPLICATION AND EXAMINATION Formal application for the degree must be made before November first of the academic year in which the degree is granted. The final oral examination of candidates for the degree takes place at the University at an appointed date within the last two weeks of May. The examination shall be conducted by a committee of the faculty of the School of Commerce of not less than five members. The degree, Master of Business Administration, is not awarded merely as result of pursuing a specified number of courses. Students are expected to meet the requirements imposed with the professional spirit and measure of precision demanded in well-regulated business houses. As the course progresses, they should acquire ability to analyze business situations and to apply fundamental principles to the solution of practical business problems. If after a reasonable time a student's work does not give promise of effectiveness in the business field, he is discouraged from continuing the course. 4. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY The degree Doctor of Philosophy is awarded through the Grad- uate School of Northwestern University. A candidate for this de- gree may present a major in economics, and a minor, or minors, in an allied field of study. Many of the courses described in this bulle- tin may be accepted by the Board of Graduate Studies towards the completion, either of the major or minor requirement. For full details regarding the requirements for this degree see the bulletin of the Graduate School. General Information General information concerning registration, tuition, fees and other matters pertaining to the full-time under-graduate day work, on the Evanston Campus, is given on page 19. This information also applies to graduate work, when carried on a full-time basis. 32 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Similar information concerning part-time under-graduate work, in the Chicago building, is given on page 27. This statement also applies to graduate work, when carried on a part-time basis. FELLOWSHIPS For the year 1922-1923, five graduate fellowships have been pro- vided for students carrying a full program. These fellowships carry $500 each, and free tuition, and are to be awarded to graduates of recognized colleges or universities. Applications should be addressed to the Director of the Graduate Division, Northwestern University School of Commerce, Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago. Programs of Study and Description of Courses 34 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Programs of Study For students who have completed a Pre-Commerce Course in Northwestern University, or who transfer to Northwestern Univer- sity upon the completion of two years of work in another institution, the following programs offer typical courses which lead to the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce, and which also prepare the student for certain fields of business activity. Every candidate for the degree Bachelor of Science in Commerce (in June, 1922) is required to carry satisfactorily in his Senior year one of the following problem courses: Accounting III, Prob- lems in Finance, Stock Exchange, Business Barometers, Problems in Organization, Industrial Relations, Value and Distribution, Ad- vanced Marketing, General Seminar. GENERAL BUSINESS JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting , 3 Accounting 1 4 Marketing , 3 Sales Administration 3 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Corporation Finance 3 Electives Combination and Competition .... 3 Public Finance 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Transportation 3 Political Science or History 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business English 2 Business and Government 3 Statistics, or Accounting II.... 4 or 5 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Factory Management 3 Advertising Campaigns 3 Principles of Advertising 3 Electives Investments 3 Stock Exchange 3 Bank Practice 3 Bank Administration 3 Problem Courses (Marketing, Fi- Office Management 2 nance, Industrial Relations, Busi- Value and Distribution 3 ness Organization, Factory Ad- Personnel Administration 3 ministration, Banking) 3 to 5 Political Science or History 3 Psychology in Business Relations. 3 Labor Legislation 3 Political Science or History 3 Purchasing 2 Business Cycles . . . . 3 Trade Unionism 3 THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 35 ACCOUNTING JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Marketing 3 Corporation Finance 3 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Elective* Combination and Competition .... 3 Public Finance 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Mathematics of Investment 3 Office Management 2 Transportation 3 Sales Administration 3 Mathematics of Insurance 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Accounting II 5 Accounting III 5 Statistics 4 Introductory Cost Accounting 2 Business Law III (Corporation) . 3 Business English 2 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Business and Government 3 Electives Investments 3 Stock Exchange 3 Bank Practice 3 Business Barometers 4 Factory Management 3 Bank Administration 3 Taxation 3 Employment Management 3 Business Cycles 3 Business English 2 BANKING AND FINANCE JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Marketing 3 Corporation Finance 3 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Money and Banking 3 Electives Combination and Competition .... 3 Public Finance 3 Mathematics of Investment 3 Mathematics of Insurance 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 International Trade Principles... 3 Sales Administration 3 36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Bank Practice, or Problems of Bank Administration 3 Finance 3 Stock Exchange 3 Investments 3 Business and Government 3 Statistics 4 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Business English 2 Electives Business Law III (Corporation) . . 3 Accounting III 5 Business Cycles 3 Office Management 2 Accounting II 5 Business Barometers 4 Credits and Collections 2 MERCHANDISING, SALES MANAGEMENT AND ADVERTISING JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Marketing 3 Sales Administration 3 Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Corporation Finance 3 Electives Principles of Advertising 3 Advertising Campaigns 3 Combination and Competition.... 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Psychology in Business Relations. 3 Transportation 3 Advanced English 3 Advanced English 3 Rate Structure 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Copy Writing 3 Copy Writing 3 Merchandising 2 Business and Government 3 Statistics 4 Business English 2 Advanced Marketing 3 Advanced Marketing 3 Purchasing 2 Electives Copy Writing 3 Copy Writing 3 Advanced Economics 3 Credits and Collections 2 Investments 3 Retail Store Management. ....... 2 Law III (Corporation) 3 Value and Distribution 3 International Trade Practice 3 THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 37 FOREIGN TRADE JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Marketing 3 Sales Administration 3 Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Business Law I (Contracts) 3 Corporation Finance 3 Elective* International Trade Practice 3 International Trade Principles... 3 Foreign Language 3 Foreign Language 3 International Law 3 World Politics 2 Combination and Competition.... 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Transportation 3 Psychology in Business Relations. 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester International Trade Practice 3 International Trade Principles... 3 Advanced Marketing 3 Advanced Marketing 3 Statistics or Accounting II. . . 4 or 5 Business and Government 3 Merchandising 2 Business English 2 Electives Oriental Trade 2 European Trade 2 Resources and Trade 2 World Commerce 2 Foreign Language 3 Foreign Language 3 World Politics 2 Asiatic Politics 2 Principles of Advertising 3 Advertising Campaigns 3 Business Law III (Corporation) . 3 Credits and Collections 2 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Latin America 2 Latin America 2 MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTION JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Marketing 3 Corporation Finance 3 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Labor Legislation 3 38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Electives Transportation 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Sales Administration 3 Social Economy 3 Sociology 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Trade Unionism 3 Problems in Factory Management. 3 Factory Management 3 Employment Management 3 Statistics 4 Factory Cost Accounting 2 Introductory Cost Accounting.... 2 Business and Government 3 Business English 2 Industrial Relations 3 Elective* Problems in Organization 3 Office Management 2 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Values and Distribution 3 Business Law III (Corporation).. 3 Business Barometers 4 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Personnel Administration 3 EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Marketing 3 Corporation Finance 3 Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Labor Legislation 3 Electives Transportation 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Sociology 3 Social Economy 3 Sales Administration 3 SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Trade Unionism 3 Business English 2 Factory Management 3 Employment Management 3 Statistics 4 Business and Government 3 Personnel Administration 3 Industrial Relations .., 3 Electives Problems in Organization 3 Value and Distribution 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Business Barometers 4 Business Law III (Corporation).. 3 Business Law IV (Property) 3 THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 39 SECRETARIAL JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Law I and II (Contracts) 3 Business Organization II 3 Business Organization I . . 3 Sales Administration 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Marketing 3 Corporation Finance 3 Electives Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Employment Management 3 Political Science 3 International Trade 3 Transportation 3 Business Law V (Property) 3 Combination and Competition.... 3 Public Finance 3 fSummer Term — Between Junior and Senior Year Stenography and Typewriting SENIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Statistics or Accounting II 4 or 5 Value and Distribution 3 Business English 2 Business and Government 3 Electwes Personnel Administration 3 Business Barometers 3 Principles of Advertising 3 Advertising Campaigns 3 Political Science 3 Political Science 3 Advanced Marketing 3 Office Management 2 Taxation 3 Advanced Marketing 3 Bank Practice , 3 Bank Administration 3 Stock Exchange 3 Business Law III (Corporation).. 3 COMMERCIAL TEACHING JUNIOR YEAR Required First Semester Second Semester Business Organization 1 3 Business Organization II 3 Principles of Education 3 History of Education 3 Introductory Accounting 3 Accounting 1 4 Corporation Finance 3 Investments 3 Business Law I and. II 3 fin the summer between the Junior and Senior years, the student will be required to carry a course in typewriting and stenography in an ap- proved school. The credit in this course will be accepted in lieu of the requirement of three months of practical business experience as described on page 18. 40 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Elective* Marketing 3 Advanced Principles of Economics 3 Educational Psychology 3 Selling Policies 3 Financial and Economic History.. 3 International Trade 3 First Semester SENIOR YEAR Required Seminar 3 School Administration 3 Statistics 4 Business Law III 3 Second Semester Seminar 3 Educational Psychology 3 Value and Distribution 3 Business English 2 Office Management 2 Business and Government 3 Electives Stock Exchange 3 Problems in Teaching 3 Principles of Advertising 2 Accounting II 5 Bank Practice 3 Political Science 3 Taxation 3 Public Finance 3 Advertising Practice 2 Cost Accounting 2 Bank Administration 3 Political Science 3 Business Law IV 3 JOURNALISM JUNIOR YEAR First Semester Reporting and News Writing.... 3 Advanced Composition 4 The Community Newspaper, or... 3 Journalistic Writing 2 Economics, History or Political Science 3 Elective 2 Second Semester Advanced Reporting 3 Advanced Composition 4 Art of Typography 2 Law of the Press, or 2 Teaching of Journalism 2 Elective 3 SENIOR YEAR First Semester News Editing 3 Editorial Writing and Policy.... 4 Writing for Business, or 2 Problems in Newspaper Policy. . . 2 Economics, History or Political Science 3 Elective 3 Second Semester Advanced News Editing 3 Feature and Magazine Writing. . 3 Problems in 'Industrial Publish- ing or 2 Tendencies in American Journal- ism 2 Newspaper Management 2 Elective 5 THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 41 Description of Courses A number of the courses included in the Commerce program are offered by other departments of the University. No description of these courses is given here, but reference is made to the description under the department offering the course. In the following descriptions, class hours are omitted. Definite announcement of hours is made in the Coursebook, issued each se- mester prior to the opening of registration. Accounting PROFESSOR ANDERSEN, PROFESSOR HIMMELBLAU, PROFESSOR FINNEY, PROFESSOR KOHLER, PROFESSOR PELTON, PROFESSOR TINEN, MR. BLISS, MR. GILBY, MR. HALL, MR. LARSON, MR. KNIGHT, MR. GRAWOLS, MR. STRITTAR, MR. BYLAND, MR. JOHNSON, MR. WHITWORTH, MR. PRITZKER, MR. THOM, MR. GREER, MR. PETTENGILL Introductory Accounting — Principles of journalizing; distinction between debits and credits; principles of single and double entry; keeping of ledger accounts and purpose thereof; loss and gain ac- counts and methods of determining losses and gains; abstracting trial balance and uses to which trial balances are put; preparation of simple financial statements. Prerequisite for Accounting I. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two or three semester-hours. Professor Finney, Professor Tinen, Mr. Byland, Mr. Grawols, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Larson, Mr. Strittar, Mr. Pritzker, Mr. Thorn, Mr. Greer. Accounting I — Principles — An introduction to the study of Ac- counting, dealing primarily with the fundamental principles. Ex- ercises in bookkeeping practice sets are correlated with a study of the fundamentals underlying the preparation of balance sheets and profit and loss statements of individuals, partnerships and corporations, with emphasis on the structure and significance of the accounts making up these statements. Prerequisite for Accounting II. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Open to students who have completed In- troductory Accounting. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Tinen, Mr. Byland, Mr. Grawols, Mr. Hall, Mr. Larson, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Strittar, Mr. Greer, Mr. Pettengill. Accounting II — Intermediate — A continuation of Accounting I designed to train the student in analyzing business facts by account- 42 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY ing methods. Statement of affairs; realization and liquidation ac- counts; executorship and trustee accounts; statement of application of funds; formation of corporations; capital and revenue expenditures; branch and agency accounting; proration of overhead costs. The balance sheet audit; the relation of the accountant, as auditor, to business; a study of specimen audits; preparation of reports by stu- dents. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Open to students who have completed Accounting I. Credit, four semester-hours. Pro- fessor Finney, Professor Pelton, Professor Tinen, Mr. Gilby, Mr. Hall, Mr. Whitworth, Mr. Grawols. Accounting III — Advanced — Continuation of Accounting II, primarily for those expecting to enter the accounting profession. Stu- dents completing Accounting III and the C. P. A. Review course should be prepared to take the state Certified Public Accountant examination. Special points in connection with the audit of munic- ipalities, institutions, banks, investment and insurance companies, land companies, publishers, mines, public utilities, contractors, etc. Investigations for special purposes; systems; income tax; consolidated balance sheets and income statements. Given in Chicago. Open to students who have completed Accounting II. Credit, four semester- hours. Professor Finney, Professor Kohler, Mr. Hall, Mr. Knight. Introductory Cost Accounting — This course or its equivalent is required of all students before electing Factory Cost Accounting. Emphasis will be placed on the bookkeeping of cost accounting and on acquiring familiarity with the more common cost forms and their uses. Open to students who have completed the first semester of Accounting I or its equivalent. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Pelton. C. P. A. Review — Thorough practice work in classroom to pre- pare candidates for Certified Public Accountant examinations. The object is to train students to apply accounting principles and to work in classroom under substantially the same conditions as in examination room. Practical accounting problems; auditing and theory of ac- counts; analysis and discussion. The last hour is devoted to an open discussion of the solutions to problems assigned. Instruction is largely individual. Given in Chicago. Credit, six semester-hours. Professor Finney. Factory Cost Accounting — Accounting incident to the purchase, receipt and issue of raw and finished materials, payrolls, and factory expenses, and the scientific distribution thereof; issuance of shop orders; perpetual inventories; productive and non-productive labor; THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 43 recording and paying of wages; piece work, profit-sharing and premium or bonus systems; factory overhead expenses; rent and in- terest in costs; system of repair, renewal and construction orders and the allocation of selling, distributing and administrative expenses; the use and value of graphic charts in the final assembly of data and statistics. Open to students who have completed Introductory Cost Accounting or its equivalent. Registration on permission of instructor. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Pro- fessor Himmelblau. Federal Taxes — A problem course in federal taxation dealing with the theory and practice under the 1921 Revenue Act ap- plicable to income and excess profits tax returns. Particular em- phasis will be laid on treasury decisions and the regulations now in force. The student will be required to solve illustrative problems illustrating the nature and computation of income, invested capital and tax payable. Open to students who have completed Accounting II. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Kohler. Accounting Records, Their Organization and Interpretation — An advanced course having as its basis the outlook of the comptroller and public accountant on the construction, control and interpretation of the accounts of an enterprise. Devising an accounting system; a study of the operations, organization and information desired. May be elected by students who have completed Accounting III, and, with the permission of the instructor, by students who have completed Ac- counting II. Credit, four semester-hours. Mr. Bliss. Accounting Seminar — This course may be elected by students preparing theses for the Master's degree. Permission of the instruc- tor is required before electing this course. Credit to be arranged. Professor Kohler. DEGREE OF CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT By act of the Illinois General Assembly passed May 15, 1903, provision is made for the examination for the degree of Certified Public Accountant which is conferred by the State. Copies of the law and regulations governing the examination may be obtained by addressing Committee on Accountancy, Urbana, Illinois. 44 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Banking and Finance PROFESSOR LAGERQUIST, PROFESSOR MOULTON, PROFESSOR R. J. RAY, MR. MC ADOW, MR. THOMPSON Money and Banking (Economics Bi) — One-third of the course is devoted to the principles and history of money, covering the theory of the value of money, monetary standards, the problem of price control, and the monetary system of the United States, including our most important past problems and their solutions. The remainder of the course will treat of the principles and functions of banking and of bank credit; it will include analysis of the bank statement, deposits versus bank notes, the bank loan, domestic and foreign ex- change, bank expansion and contraction, the reserve problem, history of banking in the United States, with particular emphasis on the Federal Reserve System. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semes- ter-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Pro- fessor Lagerquist, Professor R. J. Ray. Corporation Finance (Economics Bj) — Corporate organization in modern business; the salient points in its legal organization; classification of the instruments of finance; promotion, underwriting, capitalization, earnings, expenses, surplus, manipulation, insolvency, receivership, reorganization, and regulation. Open to students who have completed the elements of Economics. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semes- ter-hours. Professor Lagerquist. Investments (Economics Cio) — Markets and their influence on the price of securities. Elements of sound investments and methods of computing net earnings, amortization, rights, and convertibles. Government, municipal, railroad, steamship, street railway, gas, elec- tric, water power, real estate, timber, and irrigation securities as investments. Open to students who have completed Economics Bi. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Lagerquist. Stock Exchange Organization and Money Markets (Economics C16) — A study is made of the technical stock exchange organizations, their methods, operation, influences on the security market and their public relationship. An extensive analysis is made of the finan- cial market, the factors controlling these markets, both domestic and international, the method of analysis used in practice with special relation to security prices. Open to students who have completed the course in Investments or Advanced Banking. Given in Evanston. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 45 Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semes- ter-hours. Professor Lagerquist. Bank Practice and Policy (Economics C18) — Commercial bank- ing practice will be studied with particular reference to the modifica- tions introduced under the Federal Reserve System, which will be intensively analyzed. Bank credits and credit analysis; collections and clearings; money markets and rates, and bank investments. Problems of bank management. International banking; foreign ex- change; gold, commodity and security movements between countries; foreign trade financing. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Moulton. Mr. Thompson. Special Problems in Corporation Finance and Investment Securi- ties (Economics D3) — A critical study is made of selected problems, such as working capital, valuation, surplus, reorganizations, special investment security problems, etc. Each student is required to under- take an individual investigation. Given in both Evanston and Chi- cago. Credit, three to six semester-hours. Professor Lagerquist. Credits and Collections (Commerce B 1) — This course deals with the problems of the credit man and the credit department ; the organi- zation of the credit department, methods, operation, basis of credit, use of credit instruments, classes of credit, analysis of financial state- ments, relation of credit and sales departments, and legal rights of the debtor and creditor. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. McAdow. Business Law PROFESSOR BAYS AND MR. TEEVAN Business Law I — General elementary law; contracts; agency. Business Law I is fundamental and should be taken as a basis of the student's further law work. Given in Evanston. with Business Law II. Credit, four semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Bays, Mr. Teevan. Business Law II — Sales of personal property; debtor, creditor, and bankruptcy ; negotiable paper. Given in Evanston, see Business Law I, and in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Bays. Business Law III — Corporations; partnerships. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Teevan. Business Law IF (Formerly known as Business Law J' J — Law of real and personal property, insurance. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Teevan. 46 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY *Business Law V — Trade-marks and unfair competition; surety- ship, banks and banking. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester- hours. Professor Bays. Marketing, Sales and Advertising PROFESSOR CLARK, PROFESSOR HAAS, PROFESSOR BARNES, MR. PICKEN, MR. STOCKDALE, MR. CULP, MR. DINSMORE Advertising (Commerce B2) — A study of advertising in all its phases; training of advertising men. Based on reading and practical investigations of recent advertising campaigns. Covers national display advertising, retail and department store advertising, poster advertising, specialty advertising, electric signs and other adver- tising methods. Students are required to submit original work. Particular attention is given to the psychological principles under- lying successful advertising, and also to the wider economic and social aspects of advertising. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Picken. Sales Correspondence (Commerce B3) — An advanced course in sales correspondence methods, based on reading and on the results of practical work in the field. Particular attention is given to results of sales literature as used by leading firms, and to the principles of sales correspondence emphasizing the psychological background of success- ful correspondence. The work includes problems in correspondence; the writing of letters and circulars; analysis of the writer's work. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Barnes. Resources and Trade (Commerce B4) — A study of resources and the production of, and trade in, commodities as influenced by environ- mental conditions; emphasis is laid on natural resources, agricultural, forest and mineral, and the industry or product arising from the re- source. In each group the more important products will be singled out for detailed study of their occurrence, production and exchange. A study is made of other nations, both as consumers and as producers, but the resources and trade of the United States are studied more in detail and are made the basis of comparisons. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Haas. Retail Store Management (Commerce Bio) — A discussion of present-day retailing. The fundamental plans and policies which lie behind successful retail merchandising. An analysis and comparison of the costs of doing business in retail establishments, and a considera- tion of the factors which influence costs. Stock turnover, its in- fluence on cost, prices and profits. Profit-figuring and margins. Re- *Not given in 1922-1923. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 47 tail charting. Buying and control of purchases. Stock arrangement, window display. Advertising, as applied to the specific problems of the retailer. Personal selling. The education and training of the sales force. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Stockdale. Marketing and Distribution (Commerce B12) — This is a funda- mental course in the principles, methods and problems of marketing. It is intended as a basic course for students interested in salesmanship, sales management, sales correspondence, advertising and kindred sub- jects. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Clark. Purchasing (Commerce B13) — This course is devoted to a study of the functions, rights and duties of the purchasing agent in modern industry. The economic background of price changes, sources of information, the qualifications of the buyer, the ethics of the profes- sion, purchase routine, catalogs, relation of purchasing agent to other department heads, drawing specifications, testing material, stores, rail- road stores problems, the purchase of office supplies, lumber, paper creamery supplies, automobile tires, textiles, advertising space, copper, mine machinery and equipment, coal, steel, foundry supplies, salvage problems, cooperative buying and the pooling of purchasing power, the problems of the general purchasing agent. Each topic is illus- trated by practical problems taken from actual experiences. Open to all students. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Dinsmore. Selling Policies (Commerce Ci) — This course will deal with the problems of sales management, selling methods and the elements of sales campaigns. Among topics considered are personal salesman- ship, building a sales organization, the duties of a sales manager, the training and selecting of salesmen, devising selling methods, plan- ning of sales campaigns, etc. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Clark. Advertising Campaigns (Commerce C4) — An advanced course in advertising, designed to give students practical work in analyzing products, planning advertising campaigns, and writing copy. Each student will be expected to work out a complete campaign on some product chosen in consultation with the instructor. Plans and copy will then be presented by the student before the class for review and criticism. This course is intended only for students experienced in advertising or for those who have satisfactorily completed other pre- 48 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Iiminary courses offered. The number of students in this course will be limited, and admission is contingent on an interview with the in- structor. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semes- ter-hours. Mr. Picken. Merchandising (Commerce Cio) — A study of Merchandising methods and principles, including a discussion of the terms and phraseology in general use; the various methods of computing Gross Profit, Net Profit and Turnover; resume of buying and stockkeeping records (perpetual inventory, call or tally, and periodical stock- counting systems). Addresses by a purchasing agent in the manu- facturing line, and by a retail and wholesale merchandise manager. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Culp. Advanced Problems in Marketing and Selling (Commerce D4) — This is a problem course intended for advanced students who wish to do more intensive work than is possible in the courses in Market- ing and Selling Policies. Given in Evanston. Credit, six semester- hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Clark. Foreign Trade and Foreign Relations PROFESSOR COX, PROFESSOR HAAS, PROFESSOR R. J. RAY World Commerce (Commerce B$) — A study of foreign trade as a factor in national development ; the basis of international trade with a study of factors affecting the volume, the character, and the direc- tion of trade ; the great trade routes on land and sea, and the leading commercial nations of today; commercial rivalries, and the part of the United States as a commercial nation of the future. Given in Chi- cago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Haas. International Trade Practice (Commerce Bn) — Analysis and classification of the commodities and markets in the present-day for- eign trade of this country. Methods of exporting and importing raw materials and foodstuffs. Public and private aid to foreign traders. Foreign market analysis. Commission houses; export merchants. Importation of manufactured goods. Foreign agencies; export de- partments; branch offices; salesmen, correspondence, and advertising in foreign trade. Documentation; transportation; rates; marine insurance. Credits; financing; foreign exchange; foreign services and investments; the balance of trade. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Professor R. J. Ray. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 49 International Trade Theory and Policies (Economics Bi i) — The purpose of this course is to present fully the theory of international trade and, on the basis of this reasoning, to analyze the international trade policies of the United States and of other nations. Some of these policies are criticized and advisable modifications are suggested. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Professor R. J. Ray. Latin America (Commerce C2) — The development of Latin America, including a review of the Spanish and Portuguese back- ground, the colonial systems of Spain and Portugal, the wars of in- dependence, and the subsequent development of Mexico and the coun- tries of Central and South America, emphasizing their social and economic foundations. Latin America and the United States, includ- ing the origin and development of the Pan-American relations, with emphasis upon the attitude of the United States and her social and economic, as well as political, relations with her neighbors to the southward. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Pro- fessor Cox. Oriental Trade (Commerce C3) — Present-day trade with Japan, the Philippines, China, Siberia, India, and other oriental countries. Australasia is included. Each country is studied from the viewpoint of an explanation for its important exports and imports and the share of the United States. Each market is analyzed for potential trade possibilities. This involves a study of the general economic condi- tions. Trading methods and problems are carefully considered. Re- ports and special problems are assigned. Open to students who have completed the course in International Trade Practice. Given in Chi- cago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor R. J. Ray. European Trade (Commerce D3) — Present-day trade with Europe and with the Near East. The general purpose and methods of this course are the same as those in the course on Oriental Trade. However, in the trade of Western Europe certain special conditions and problems exist because of the advanced industrial and com- mercial organization there. Reports and special problems are as- signed. Open to students who have completed the course in Inter- national Trade Practice. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester- hours. Professor R. J. Ray. Geography of North America (Geology B12) — A study of the influence of geographic conditions on the development of North America as a. whole; the physical features and climatic conditions modifying life; .the character and distribution of each, nation's re-. 50 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY sources, their exploitation, and problems of conservation; the place of each North American nation as a part of the industrial and com- mercial world. Open to students who have completed Geology A5. Given in Evanston. Credit to be arranged. Geography of Asia (Geology B15) — The influences of the physi- cal environment on the development of the people of Asia; the re- sources and their exploitation ; emphasis on Japan, China, Siberia and India,, and their commercial relations with the United States. Given in Evanston. Credit to be arranged. Geography of Africa (Geology B16) — A study of the continent and its relations to other continents; detailed study of the sections of Africa presenting strong contrasts; the geographic reasons for their present industrial and commercial conditions. Given in Evanston. Credit to be arranged. Geography of South America (Geology Cj) — A study of the influences of geographic conditions on the development of the differ- ent South American countries; the physical features, climatic con- ditions, and general relationships; a study of the geography of each country with special emphasis on present conditions and development as an index of future possibilities. Special emphasis will be placed upon our trade with South American countries. Open to students who have completed Geology B12. Given in Evanston. Credit to be arranged. Geology and Geography — Other courses dealing with physical and geographical conditions with respect to their bearing upon the natural resources and trade relations of North and South America, are offered by the Department of Geology and Geography in the College of Liberal Arts. Economics, History, Political and Social Science PROFESSOR DEIBLER, PROFESSOR HEILMAN, PROFESSOR LAGERQUIST, PROFESSOR SECRIST, PROFESSOR CLARK, PROFESSOR TODD, PROFESSOR POOLEY, PROFESSOR GROSE, MR. HAHNE, MR. WELLS, MR. MOORHOUSE, MR. CAHN The Elements of Economics (Economics A) — An elementary course in the principles of economics. First semester — An examina- tion of the fundamental principles of economics. Second semester — Application of these principles to practical problems. Throughout the course special attention is given to the relation between theory and practice. Required of Sophomores taking Pre-Commerce work. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 51 Given in Evanston (for hours and credit, see Annual Catalog). Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Deibler, Mr. Hahne, Mr. Wells, Mr. Moorhouse, Mr. Cahn. Sociology (Economics B4) — Social evolution and progress, with particular reference to social laws; social institutions, such as the family, the state ; social progress, and physical, psychical, economic, and political factors in social progress. Given in Evanston (for hours and credit, see Annual Catalog). Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Todd. Elements of Public Finance and Taxation (Economics B6) — The nature of the state; theories and classification of public expenditures; national, state and local expenditures; budget making in theory and practice. The theory and practice of taxation. Property, income and inheritance taxes. National, state and local tax systems and administration. Open to students who have completed Economics A. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Mr. Hahne. Business and Government (Economics C2) — The relations be- tween the public and public service corporations. The necessity of regulation, various methods of control — the franchise, the indeter- minate permit, public utilities commissions. The development of the principles of valuation, rate-making, service, and capitalization. Gov- ernment ownership. The relations between government and private businesses. The proper scope of regulation, constitutional and legal aspects of regulation. Regulation of competition. Control of cor- porations and trusts. Government promotion and encouragement of business, elements of a national policy towards business. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Heilman. Government — Other courses in Government are offered by the Department of Political Science in the College of Liberal Arts. These courses may be elected by Commerce students who can satisfy the prerequisites fixed by the Department. Labor Problems and Trade Unionism (Economics C3) — The de- velopment of a wage-earning class with special emphasis on economic causes. Problems of woman and child labor. Immigration. Early organizations of labor. Trade union history, structure, methods and policies. The trade agreement, strikes, arbitration, the injunction and the legal responsibilities of the union. Open to students who have completed Economics A. Given in Evanston. Credit, three se- mester-hours. Professor Deibler. 52 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Labor Conditions and Labor Legislation (Economics C4) — Fac- tory conditions in respect to hours, wages, sanitation. Industrial accidents, safety standards and accident prevention. Limitation of hours. Workmen's compensation. Laws regulating the employment of women and children. Unemployment insurance. Minimum wages. Labor bureaus and the administration of labor laws. Open to students who have completed or are taking a course in the B group of courses in the Department of Economics. Given in Evans- ton. Credit, three semester-hours. Professor Deibler. Principles of Taxation (Economics Cj) — Historical survey of early taxation with respect to tax principles; justice in taxation; theories of taxation ; distribution of taxation ; present tendencies and reform in taxation. Open to students who have completed Economics B6. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Mr. Hahne. Value and Distribution (Economics Cq) — Detailed examination of the outside influences affecting business establishments and the principles that govern the operation of business. Value; production and diminishing productivity; rent; capital; interest; wages; profits; social reform. Open to graduate students and to seniors who have completed Economics B2. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semes- ter-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, jour semester-hours. Pro- fessor Deibler. Contemporary Europe (History A 6) — A review of European history since 1815; the development of nationalism, national im- perialism, and democracy; economic and social changes; the major events and immediate results of the Great War. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Grose. History of the United States (History Ay) — A survey of the growth of the American state, with the emphasis upon the more recent events. Founding the State, 1600-1814; nationalizing the State, 1814-1865; the New Nation, 1865-1898; America a World Power, 1 898- 1 920. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Pooley. Industrial Relations PROFESSOR HOTCHKISS, PROFESSOR EARL DEAN HOWARD, PROFESSOR DUTTON Labor Management (Commerce B6) — A course designed to meet the demand for instruction in the scientific adjustment of the relations of employer and employe. The employment department, its organi- THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 53 zation and functions, its relations with the management, with fore- men and with workmen. Labor turnover and absenteeism. Their significance and costs, methods of determining and reducing. Rate setting, safety_and welfare work. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, tivo semester-hours. Professor Dutton. Industrial Relations (Commerce Cj) — A course prepared to meet the demand for information in the scientific adjustment of the rela- tions between employer and employe. The organization of the labor department, its duties and functions, its place in administering the policies and plans of the management concerning its employes, its part in the formation of such plans, etc. The course deals primarily with the fundamental principles underlying industrial relations. Open to all students. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Hotchkiss, Professor Earl Dean Howard. Seminar in Personnel Administration (Commerce Dl) — An ad- vanced course in personnel methods and administration, combining classroom instruction with laboratory and field work in the personnel or employment department of selected business establishments. Open to graduate students and to candidates for the M.B.A. degree in their last year. Given in Evanston. Credit, four to eight semester- hours. Journalism (The Medill School of Journalism) PROFESSOR HARRINGTON, PROFESSOR BAYS, PROFESSOR SMART, PRO- FESSOR THAYER, MR. WASHBURNE, MR. BROWNELL, MR. MILLER, MR. BASTIAN, MR, BARTELS, MR. EWING A I. Newspaper Reporting and Writing — Study of style and vocabulary, with practice in the securing and writing of news; a study of the methods of getting news by individual efforts, by cor- respondents, and press associations. Limited to forty students. Open to all Journalism students. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Harrington, Professor Thayer, Mr. Washburne. A3. Law of the Press — Interpretation of the law in its relation to journalism; a study of the law of copyright, literary property, privileged publications, libel ; constitutional guarantees of the liberty of the press; statutory restrictions of the press, etc. Open to all 54 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Journalism students. Given in Evanston. Credit, two semester- hours. Professor Bays. Bi. News Editing — A course affording practice in elementary copy reading and headline writing. Consideration will be given to the study of newspaper style, writing leads, make-up methods, libel, straight news and feature stories, signed articles, sectional stories, story structure and assembly, cable and radio news, straight news and feature headlines, unusual forms of headlines and text. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Thayer, Mr. Bastian. B2. Advanced News Editing — An advanced course affording intensive practice in copy reading. Special attention will be given to the study of headline, the use of pictures, the make-up of special pages, the study of newspaper edition, analyses of "big" stories and news values. The class will be required to make up an entire issue of some paper in the classroom. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Thayer, Mr. Bastian. B3. Journalistic Writing — Preparation of articles for print, in- cluding copy reading, headline building, rewriting, proof reading. Instruction in correct use of words and phrases, with analysis of approved methods of popular approach. The technique of news stories will be discussed, with drill in writing them. Weekly reports on representative newspapers. Sources and treatment of materials for editorials, feature articles, and critical reviews, with opportunities for publication. Intended for teachers and others who desire a broad survey of newspaper materials and methods. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Thayer. B4. Advanced News Reporting and Writing — Continuation of Newspaper Reporting and Writing. An intensive course in the training of reporters on metropolitan papers, giving advanced stu- dents, as well as newspaper workers, an opportunity to improve their style and thus better their newspaper equipment; opportunity given to become acquainted with news sources, with practice in writ- ing stories relating to police, city hall, churches, conventions, promi- nent men, politics and business, as well as short feature and human interest narratives. Open to students who have completed News- paper Reporting or who have had equivalent experience. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Miller, Mr. Ewing. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 55 B6. The Art of Typography — Typography, with special refer- ence to newspaper and periodical advertising, type essentials, and typographical arrangement. Principles underlying the correct typog- raphy for advertisements and headlines, make-up of text pages and advertisements, designing lay-outs for advertising matter, plates and plate-making, duplicating processes, paper, inks and presses, the use of illustrations and engravings. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Bartels. B8. Teaching of Journalism in School and College — Com- panion course to Journalistic Writing (given in first semester). A course especially designed for teachers who have the direction of school publications and who seek some guidance in the conduct of a class in journalistic writing and editing. A critical study will be made of various types of school publications. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Harrington. Ci and C2. Advanced Composition for Journalism Students — General problems of effective style, with special reference to the needs of the journalist. Special attention is given to vocabulary work, conciseness, and concreteness of expression. Practice in ex- pository, descriptive, and narrative writing. Supplementary reading. Required of Journalism students for the degree. Given in Evanston. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Smart. C3. Problems in Newspaper Policy — A reading and seminar course in contemporary fields, designed to supplement the work in Editorial Writing and Policy and in Reporting. The general sub- ject for 1922-23 will be Public Opinion, based on Walter Lippman's book, "Public Opinion." Those aspects of the subject which relate to sources of editorial influence, journalistic codes of ethics, the en- dowed newspaper, the treatment of news relating to labor, capital, crime, nationalism, etc., and the questions of censorship, propaganda, coloring, accuracy, will be given emphasis. Open to mature students after conference with the instructor. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Brownell. C4. Tendencies in American Journalism — A seminar course de- signed to interpret contemporary journalism in the light of its social and historical conditions. The first six weeks will be devoted to a rapid but intensive study of the history of American journalism, including the colonial press, the political press, the penny press, and the lives of outstanding journalists. The last ten weeks will be given to interpretive studies of the main tendencies in contemporary jour- nalism. Such questions as the rise and decline of personalism, the 56 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY movement towards realism, psychological and economic factors in producing the newspaper, the function of the newspaper in national development will be discussed. Open to all students after conference with the instructor. Given in Evanston. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Brownell. C$. Editorial Writing and Policy — A critical study of the theory and practice of editorial writing ; training in the interpretation of news; editorial policy in its relation to directing public opinion. Limited to twenty-five students. This is a writing course, open to students who have completed Newspaper Reporting or its equivalent, after consultation with the instructor. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. May be repeated with credit. Mr. Brownell. C6. Newspaper Management — Training of newspaper execu- tives with particular reference to circulation, advertising and pro- motion problems of newspapers; functions of various departments; discussion of plant location, equipment and operation ; general prin- ciples of newspaper cost accounting; purchase of supplies; and delivery systems. Each student to solve four problems during the semester and to make class reports. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Thayer. Cy. Writing for Business — Dealing with the editorial problems of class, technical and trade papers; writing of commercial and mar- ket news stories; preparation of house organ material, employes' magazines; writing of articles on business investigation. Special lectures by business paper editors. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Thayer. C8. Problems in Industrial Publishing — Training of business paper executives, emphasizing the circulation, advertising and pro- motion phases of business journalism; offers opportunity of investi- gation of actual business problems of representative trade and business publications; discussion of relation of editorial to business problems; consideration of the editor as a salesman. Given in Chi- cago. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Thayer. Cg. The Community Newspaper — Discussions and investiga- tions intended primarily for students interested in the. publication -of country weeklies and small town dailies. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Professor Harrington. ClO. Feature and Magazine Writing— Lectures and discussions bearing upon the preparation of articles for newspapers, magazines, and literary .weeklies, with. talks, at intervals by specialists on Chicago THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 57 periodicals. Limited to twenty students. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Harrington. GRADUATE COURSE D I or D2. Research in Journalism — Conference course designed to give the advanced student an opportunity to do original research either on the business or editorial phase of journalism. Open only to graduate students. Given in Evanston. Credit, six semester-hours. Professor Harrington, Professor Thayer, Mr. Brownell. Languages and Literature PROFESSOR SMART, PROFESSOR SNYDER, PROFESSOR BRYAN, PROFESSOR SARETT, PROFESSOR MARSH, PROFESSOR MARTIN, PROFESSOR MYERS, PROFESSOR FORSYTHE, PROFESSOR BARNES, MR. WRIGHT, MR. CLARK, MR. HEIDBRINK, MR. COOK, MR. NETHERCOT, MR. ROLLINS, MR. HIGHFILL, MR. PETTY, MR. SHOWER, MR. SIMON, MR. CLAAR English I — A review of the fundamental elements of the language, intended to meet the needs of diploma and special students who are not fully prepared for English II. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Myers, Mr. Shower, Mr. Claar. English II — Analysis, development, and logical presentation of a subject. Sentence structure: unity of thought; arrangement and relation of parts; effectiveness in sentence structure; violations of correct grammatical form; review of punctuation. Vocabulary building; common mistakes in the use of words. The writing of articles on both business and general subjects, to give the student practice in acquiring a correct and effective style of expression. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Smart, Pro- fessor Bryan, Professor Marsh, Professor Martin, Professor Forsythe, Mr. Cook, Mr. Heidbrink, Mr. Nethercot, Mr. Rollins, Mr. High- fill. Advanced English — The larger aspects of effective writing, the presentation of the subject as a whole, as distinguished from the details of sentence structure. Consideration of the elements of effec- tive style, based on the study of passages from writers of recognized standing. Especial attention is given to vocabulary building and the advanced study of words. Open to students who have completed English II or its equivalent. Given in Chicago. Credit, two se- mester-hours. Professor Smart. 58 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Business English — A study of the principles of business corre- spondence. Practice in writing routine, adjustment, credit, collec- tion, and sales letters. Required of seniors. Given in Evanston. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Smart. Preparation and Writing of Reports — A course intended pri- marily for accountants and engineers, but adapted also to the needs of other business men. Principles, organization, and typical forms of reports; the construction and use of graphs; the writing of reports on assigned topics. Emphasis is laid on correctness, accuracy, and conciseness of expression, as essential factors in a good business report. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Cook. Business Correspondence — Training in the composition of effec- tive business letters, with some discussion of tendencies in present-day business correspondence and the problems of management which arise in connection with correspondence. The best practice of the day is studied through extracts from business literature and letters sent out by representative firms in many lines of business. The assigned writing is planned to include a considerable variety of letters, with special emphasis on intra-house communications, service letters, ad- justment letters, and collection letters. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Barnes. Literature — First semester: Masterpieces of English literature with special attention to the development of the last fifty years. Second semester: American literature from Hawthorne to the pres- ent day. This is a year-course, but the work of each semester is a complete unit in itself. Students may register for either semester separately, or for the entire year. Given in Evanston; see English B4, Annual Catalog. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester- hours. Professor Snyder. Effective Speaking — A study of the theory of effective speaking; practical, original application of the rules and principles. The class offers an opportunity for practice and failures under kindly, con- structive criticism. Open to students who have completed English I or its equivalent. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Mr. Wright, Mr. Simon. Argumentation and Extempore Speaking — Selecting material, or- ganizing it, expressing it effectively. Learning to speak results only from speaking, therefore opportunities to speak are given. This course is designed to help men to promotion in business by teaching them to express their ideas orally in a pleasing and effective manner. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Professor Sarett. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 59 Commercial French — A thorough drill in French grammar and composition. The course is intended for those who desire a practical knowledge of modern French for business purposes. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Mr. Clark. Commercial Spanish — A thorough training in pronunciation and conversation. Appropriate stress is laid on the technical vocabulary of trade, and on Spanish forms of commercial correspondence. Thorough drill in grammar and in composition is an important fea- ture of the work. Given in Chicago. Credit, four semester-hours. Mr. Petty. Organization and Management PROFESSOR HEILMAN, PROFESSOR SWANSON, PROFESSOR DUTTON, MR. JACOBS, MR. OGILVIE Business Organization I (Commerce B8) — A systematic descrip- tive survey of the organization and operation of the business, of its typical activities and their relationship to each other. The promo- tion and financing of the business; forms of organization; control of production, planning and operation; employment and handling of men; purchasing; advertising, selling; banking; credit; collections; accounting; cost accounting, business barometers, executive control. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Heilman, Professor Dutton, Mr. Jacobs. Factory Management (Commerce Bg) — Factors affecting location of plant; adaptation of building to process; types of factory building; routing of work; selection and arrangement of machinery; auxiliary departments. Types of organization and special adaptations of each type; executive control; methods in the Production, Stores, Purchas- ing, Shipping, Engineering, Cost and other departments; progress records; standardization. Handling of labor, wage systems; time study; selection, discipline, and records; methods of securing the workmen's cooperation. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester- hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Dutton. 60 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Business Organization II (Commerce C5) — A course primarily analytical in character, dealing with the problems of structure and internal organization of the business: (a) The structure of organiza- tion; standards, classification and division of duties, centralization, functionalization and specialization; the staff function and initiative in business; (b) the operation of the organization; planning, super- vision, inspection and follow-up, coordination ; control by records, discipline, leadership, executive control. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Dutton. Office Organization and Management (Commerce C6) — A practical study of principles of organization and management as applied to office functions; for students in business administration, accounting, and secretarial work; deals with duties and problems of office executives; personnel problems; educational work; human in- terest; location, lay-out and equipment; methods; correspondence; fil- ing; department records and statistics. Given in both Evanston and Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. Ogilvie. Business Organization and Management — Special Problems (Commerce C8J — -Managerial personnel, including selections, de- velopment, energizing, rewarding, shifting, demotion ; major con- siderations in determining organization structure; centralization versus decentralization. The kind and form of information that the executive needs; considerations in the formulation of policies — finan- cial, sales, price, service, labor, production; purchasing, accounting control ; the budget ; control of capital expenditure. The functioning of an executive board; knowledge of external conditions and means of adapting business to them; expansion, vertical and horizontal; diversification versus specialization. Open to Commerce Seniors and graduate students by permission of the instructor. Given in Evans- ton. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Swanson. Psychology PROFESSOR WEBB, PROFESSOR HOWARD, DR. SNOW, MR. M. A. MYERS General Psychology (Psychology Ai) — A brief study of how the mind works. The principal mental operations, such as memory, rea- soning, imagination, feelings, instincts, etc., will be explained, in their relation to everyday life. This course is intended to lay the basis for the study of Business Psychology. Required of Pre-Commerce stu- dents. Given in Evanston (for hours and credit, see Annual Cata- THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 61 log). Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Webb and Professor Howard. Psychology in Business Relations (Psychology B3) — The applica- tions of psychology to various types of business activities, such as advertising, salesmanship, etc. A study of attention; appeals to cus- tomers' sympathy, instincts and habits; a study of methods for mak- ing arguments and for. presenting suggestions; the psychological strength of various media of advertising; a study of the methods of advertising some typical class of merchandise. Open to students who have completed an elementary course in general psychology. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Howard and Dr. Snow. Psychological Aspects of Personnel Administration (Psychology C6) — The results of research in the psychological aspects of personnel management in business and industry. Technique of employment management, practice in hiring, assignment, transfer, training, super- vision, promotion and discharge. The problems of job analysis, and specification; progress of work, fatigue, and motion study. Indi- vidual and plant morale. Incentive, motive, class psychology, indus- trial reconstruction, and the human relations between employer and employe. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Dr. Snow. Psychology of Salesmanship — Psychology is defined as the science of human behavior. Behavior is analyzed for the purpose of pre- diction and control. Selling constitutes an attempt to produce in the prospect a particular form of behavior. The scientific approach to this problem begins with the study of motivation, with the analysis of man's "mainsprings" to action. The course deals with the psy- chological principles of personal salesmanship, motives for buying, the attitude of prospective purchasers towards the salesman, the various types of buyers and methods of dealing with each, the selection of talking points, the use of suggestion and argument, the develop- ment of the faculty of salesmanship, personality in its relation to sales, etc. Open to students who have completed General Psychology, or to others with acceptable practical experience. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Mr. M. A. Myers. Psychology — See also Seminar in Personnel Administration, under Industrial Relations. Other courses in Psychology, offered by the Department of Psychology in the College of Liberal Arts, may be elected by Commerce students who can satisfy the prerequisites fixed by the Department. 62 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Statistics PROFESSOR SECRIST Statistics and Statistical Methods (Economics C 15) — The course systematically develops the principles of statistical methods and shows by means of illustrations and laboratory problems how they apply in the economic and business world. Students are required to pass judgment upon statistical data already collected, to collect new data, and to apply to them the standard statistical measures. Required of Commerce students in their second year. Open to other students who have completed a course in Economics as advanced as the B group. Given in Evanston. Credit, four semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Secrist. Problems in Statistical Methods (Economics D2) — The applica- tion of statistical methods to business and economic problems, par- ticular attention being given to the development and criticism of business barometers. The course considers the business barometers currently issued and criticizes them from the points of view of con- tent, ability to forecast business conditions and their application to particular business problems. Open to students who have completed the course in Statistics and Statistical Methods. Given in Evanston. Credit, three to five semester-hours. Professor Secrist. Business Cycles and Business Barometers (Commerce D2) — For description, see Problems in Statistical Methods above. Open to students who have completed the course in Statistics and Statistical Methods and to others with the consent of the instructor. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semester-hours. Professor Secrist. Transportation PROFESSOR VANDERBLUE The Interstate Commerce Act (Economics Bg) — Development of American transportation systems; the economic characteristics of railroads, competitive and non-competitive rate-making; the Inter- state Commerce Act, as amended; the causes for the passage of the Act, and the results of its workings; the railroad traffic associations; general characteristics of the rate structure; railroad rates and the problems of plant location and of marketing; milling and fabrication in transit; diversion; routing and tracing; the Administrative and Conference ruling of the Interstate Commerce Commission ;. the In- terstate Commerce Act, and its interpretation. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, two semes- ter-hours. Professor Vanderblue. THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE 63 Rate Structure (Economics C12) — The place of the Traffic De- partment in the railroad organization; the rules of the Interstate Commerce Commission governing the compilation, filing, and publi- cation of tariffs; the Official, Western, and Southern Classifications, and the extent of their application ; the interpretation of classifications and of Tariffs; Trunk line and Central Freight Association rates; rates into Southeastern Territory and the Carolinas; the Virginia Cities adjustment; Trans-Mississippi and Trans-Missouri rates; Colorado, Utah, and Montana common points; rates to South- western Territory and Texas common points ; Transcontinental rates ; intra-state and intra-territorial rates; the effect of the Panama Canal on rates and traffic; export and import rates; port differentials and the decisions of the Commission thereon. Given in Evanston. Credit, three semester-hours. Given in Chicago. Credit, tivo semester-hours. Professor Vanderblue. Seminar and Research Courses Economics Seminar (Economics D 1) — Involves an original inves- tigation, dealing with a phase of a fundamental economic problem related to the probable future business field of the student. Students meet for the discussion of general questions involving the technique of investigation, such as the use of original materials, taking of notes, marshalling of facts. The individual work is done under the direc- tion of a member or members of the faculty. Intended to give the student training in the use of the original data and in drawing correct and accurate conclusions based on all of the facts in a limited field of injury. Given in Evanston. Credit, three to six semester-hours. 64 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Attendance 1921-1922 Graduate students 321 Undergraduate students: Students in Evanston Classes 360 Students in Chicago Classes 2,718 3,078 Special Courses — Summer School, 192 1 352 Federal Tax Course, 1921 107 National School for Commercial Secretaries 187 646 Total 4,045 Duplicates deducted 159 Total individual students registered in all courses 3,886 3 0112 105881962 Northwestern University Evanston — Chicago q THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS, ideally located in Evanston, offers well organized courses for general educa- tion, with special preparation for the professions and for other pursuits requiring broad training, and special courses in Religious Education and in Physical Education. q THE GRADUATE SCHOOL, in Evanston, extends non- professional training and research beyond the College curric- ulum, with courses leading to advanced degrees. q THE MEDICAL SCHOOL, in Chicago, is one of the best equipped in the United States and its reputation for efficiency is well-established. Numerous hospitals in close proximity are open to students. Clinical material is abundant. q THE LAW SCHOOL, the oldest in Chicago, offers unex- celled library and research facilities. Its courses leading to degrees prepare for practice in any state. <I THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, on the campus in Evanston, offers a five-year course of professional education in a University environment, leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Science and Civil Engineer or Electrical Engineer. <jf THE DENTAL SCHOOL, in Chicago, is recognized as one of the leading schools for dental training and investigation. Its clinical facilities are unsurpassed. q THE SCHOOL OF MUSIC in three well-equipped build- ings offers exceptional advantages for the thorough study of music, professional or otherwise. It is located in Evanston. q THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, in Chicago and Evanston, offers professional and scientific education for business with emphasis on the training of business executives. Day and evening work, laboratory courses, and business research. q THE SCHOOL OF SPEECH, in Evanston, is a University Professional School. It offers courses in debate, public speak- ing and interpretation. q THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, in Evanston, coordinates the pedagogical activities of the University and through the Department of Education in the College of Liberal Arts offers courses for every type of teaching. Awards University Cer- tificate in Education. q THE MEDILL SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM, in Chicago and Evanston, offers comprehensive courses in editing, news writing, reporting, newspaper administration. For information regarding any School of the University, address the President's Office, Northwestern University Building, Chicago, Illinois.